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Ethics in Anthropology

Ethics in Anthropology

STIMUATING ETHCIAL AWARNESS IN ANTHROPOLOGY

1. IAA BEGIN WORK ON CODE OF ETHICS

2. CODES ARE NECESSARY, MORAL CONSENSUS, INDICATE NORMS OF BEHAVIOR, ANTICIPATE CONFLCIT, GOOD EDUCATIONALY AND AS A PROFESSION, AS PR. ALL CODES SOW IDEAL CULTURE, NOT PRESCRIPTIVE, NO SANCTIONS FOR VIOLATIONS, BUT ABSTRACT, GUIDELINES. ALL ANTICIPATE ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN PLANNING, WITH RESEACH SUBJECTS, WITH COLLEAGUES, WITH FINDINGS, WITH PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND WITH STORAGE.

3. CODES HAVE LIMITED VALUE. FEW ARE READ OR INFLUENCE. NO ABUSE STOPPED BY CODE. PREESENTS STATIC VIEW THAT MAY EVEN IMPEDE DISCUSSION.

4. ALSO CODES ARE EMIC – ANTHROPOLOGY OF CODES: BRAZIL: RIGHT TO CONDUCT FIEDWORK WITHOUT CENSORSHIP

5. AUSTRALIA: JOINT PLANNING, DOING, WRITING W/ PEOPLE

6. AAA: PRIME DIRECTIVE –LOYALTRY TO PEOPLE STUDIED CHANGED TO DO NOT HARM : SCHEPHER-HUGHES STUDY OF PROCURERS OF ORGANS; OR STUDY “UP”.

7. ASA: ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING & CONSENT IS PROCESS, DONE REPEATEDLY, NOT SIGNED FORM; AND KEY TO LEAVE FIELD ACCESIBLE FOR FUTURE RESEARCHERS.

8. MY VIEW IS ETHICAL AWARENESS IS LIKE USCLES WHICH NEED TO BE KEPT IN SHAPE OTHERWISE FLABBY AND UNPREPARED FOR CRISIS

9. DRAW ON JEWISH TRADITION: READ SECTION OF CODE AT EACH MEETING LIKE TORAH READING E.G. ASA P. 5

10. NOT CASE EXAMPLES BUT TALMUDIC:

CASE I: YOU ARE GRAD STUDENT SNEDING NOTES FROM THE FIELD TO YOUR ADVISOR BY EMAIL. WHEN YOU DISCOVER USED MATERIAL IN ARTICLE WITHOUT CREDIT. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO? WOULD IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE IF ADVISOR HAD VISITED THE FIELD? IF NOTES WERE POSTED ON WEB? IF HEAD OF DEPT TOLD YOU TO FORGET THE MATTER FOR CAREER’S SAKE? WHAT IF YOU CONFRONT ADVISOR WHO THEN FAILS YOU?

CASE II: YOU STUDY ILLEGAL SUDANESE REFUGEES AND OVER TIME HAVE FORMED A GOOD TRUSTING RELATIONSHIP. ON NIGHT, THE IMMIGRATION POLICE COME AND DEMAND THAT YOU TELL THEM THE NAMES AND RESIDENCES OF INFORMANTS. THEY HAVE A COURT ORDER FOR YOUR FIELD NOTES. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO?

WHAT IF THEY THREATEN YOU WITH JAIL/CONTEMPT OF COURT? WHAT IF THE SUDENESE ARE INVOLVED IN ILLEGAL ACTIVITITES: THEFT? DRUGS? CHILD ABUSE?

11. OFTEN WE SEE COLLEAGUES ON SLIPPERY SLOPE OR GREY AREA. IN MEDICAL PROFESSION, THERE IS AN ETHICAL OBLIBATION TO REPORT SUCH VIOLATIONS. DO ANTHROPOLOGISTS HAVE SIMILAR OBLIGATION. BASED ON LEV. 19:17 THERE IS EXTENSIVE LITERATURE ON HOW TO WARN. IDEAS DIFFER: IF YOU DO NOT WARN, YOU ARE EQUALLY GUILTY. IF YOU WARN INEFFECTIVELY, YOU BEAR GUILT. BUT ALL SAY THAT IT IS DIFFICULT TO WARN WELL.

12. CASE III: YOU ARE PART OF PROJECT IN MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY STUDYING PREGNANCY AND BIRTH RITUALS IN NEW IMMIGRANTS. WOMAN YOU ARE STUDYING LED YOU TO BELIEVE THAT YOUR BOSS IS RECRUTING WOMAN BY IMPLYING THAT IF THEY DO NOT PARTICIPATE THEIR HEALTH AND KLITA BENEFITS WOULD BE ENDANGERED. THE DISCUSSION IS RUSHED AND DOES NOT ALOW TIME FOR CONSENT AND DOES NOT UNDERSTAND CULTURAL CODES INVOLVED, RIGHT OF WOEN TO REFUSE REQUESTS, PRIVACY ISSUES ETC. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO? HOW WOULD YOU WARN?

13. IN MY MACHON, WHERE WE HAVE CODE WITH SANCTIONS, WE WORKED OUT – NEVER WARN ALONE, go with one closer, other not; one junior/one senior. plan approach in advance; do not make it one time; decide what you will do if rebuffed.